According to the 2018 Annual Surveillance Report, the number of newly diagnosed cases of HIV in Australia has declined by 7% over the past five years, following a steady increase since 1999. An estimated 199,230 people were living with chronic hepatitis C infection at the beginning of 2017 decreasing to 182,144 by the end of 2017, with over 20,454 cured of hepatitis C since the end 2016 thanks to increased access to new treatments subsidised by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Rates of gonorrhoea continue to increase, with a particular rise in heterosexuals in urban areas. There has also been a resurgence of infectious syphilis in Northern Australia.
The Annual Surveillance Report has been published each year since 1997. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia and includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of HIV and viral hepatitis, by demographic and risk groups, patterns of treatment for HIV and viral hepatitis infection, and behavioural risk factors for HIV and hepatitis C infection.